Nutrition is life, life is nutrition , this is a combination of Macros & Micros unified by Oxygen and Water. Today let us discuss on this topic on a blunt note as I intend to go heavy on details on a future blog. 

What are Macros: I would brand them as fuel source #1 ( C = Carbohydrates, P= Proteins, F= Fats, W= Water ) & Micro’s are (Vitamins, Minerals & Phytochemical ) these provide body with energy, builds muscle, bone and maintain function of the internal organs, aids growth, helps recover, disease prevention, psychological healing and the list keeps adding, lacking attention to the aforementioned areas, is what sets apart healthy individual from unhealthy individual and High Performance athletes against an  underperforming athletes & injury prone athletes even if they have a solid Strength & Conditioning /Recovery periodized programme.

 6 main nutrients, –  Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fat, Water, Vitamins and Minerals , key focus on this article are the  4 major nutrients :  Carbohydrates, Protein , Fat & Water.

Carbohydrates:  This is your primary source of  gasoline  4 kcal/g. energy per gram of Carbohydrates55-65% daily energy intake food should come from carbsFor endurance athletes it should be around  70% of your total consumption.

Blood glucose is the immediate energy source, it is the primary source of energy utilization and the muscle glycogen (largest & long-term storage)is the secondary source of energy.
Liver glycogen is the 3rd and the other long-term storage of energy

  • Protein sparing effect (prevents protein used as source of energy) 

Examples of : Carbohydrates usage in common activities include the following activities:

  • Walking low intensity = least amount less than 50%
  • Medium Intensity Jog = around 50%
  • High Intensity Running = More than 50 %

   GI INDEX (Glycemic index) 
 # Groups food by how high and how long it’s going to reach blood glucose}  White bread is the bench mark with 100 and the rest is scaled down  

High GI = Increases blood glucose and Insulin       

Low GI = Slower and gradual increase in blood glucose

 G.I. 90-100 Waffles, donuts, bagels, cornflakes, glucose, pineapples, raisins, carrots, baked potato, water melon, bread

 G.I. 60-90 Lactose free milk, muffins, all bran cereal, oat bran, white rice, brown rice, Ice cream (low fat), banana,canned fruits, grapes, orange, peas, backed beans, pears, sweet potato, oatmeal cookies, chocolate, popcorn, potato chips

G.I. below 60 Barley, rye, milk, yoghurt, apples, cherries, grapefruit, plums, chickpeas, kidney beans, lentils, pinto beans,tomato, peanuts

Common food containing Carbohydrates :

FoodTotal Calories
Orange Juice112
Corn Flakes104
Potato Baked224
White bread (1 slice)65
Carbonated drink (1 can)164


a)  There could be slight variances in calories for individual food items, depending on the brand, so make sure to check all food labels before purchase
b)  Physically active population should take in an adequate amount of carbohydrates depending on sports and energy requirements per each individual and each respective physical activity & health status


Body repairing agent and backup source of energy composed of aminos (NH2+) CHO 

#There are 9 essential amino acids (body cannot produce) and 12 non-essential amino acid (body can produce).

# Animal based proteins are branded as complete protein & plant protein are branded as incomplete protein without the exception of few plants based products , thus a person will need variety and gilded supplementing planned design by your Doctor or Registered Dietitian.

Key points are it contains:

# 4 kcal per gram of Protein energy production

# Growth and recovery is main component 

# Aid enzymes and hormones production 

#Builds anti-bodies for better immunity 

Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, blood volume and sweat rate 

Sustain blood glucose when glycogen drops via gluconeogenesis ( uses stored muscle glucose )

Requirement : Average person (0.8-09g per kg), Endurance athletes (1.2g per kg), Strength athlete (1.6-1.8g per kg)

Best source of proteins: WHEY, CASEIN, EGG, SOY, RICE , make sure you have one or mix of all so that 15% of your calories are covered 

  • NOTE: a)  There could be slight variances in calories for individual food items, depending on brand, so make sure to check all food labels before purchase)
    b)  Physically active population should take in an adequate amount of carbohydrates depending on sports and energy requirements per each individual and each respective physical activity & health status 
  •  c) It is advisable to have no more than 1.8 grams of protein per kilogram of lean body weight (this topic will be covered in an upcoming article) unless you are supervised by a dietician and a doctor 

Common food containing Protein :

FoodTotal Calories
Tuna (3 oz. canned)129
Chicken breast roasted185
Crab meat (1 cup/8 oz.)123
Salmon (3 oz. canned)113
Cheddar Cheese (1 oz.)109
Shrimp (3 oz.)97

FAT :Main purpose is insulation,protection & be a source of lasting energy provider 

  • Insulates your body in extreme temperature
  • Provides 9 calories per gram of fat 
  • Carries essential nutrients (vitamin K, D, A, E)
  • Cushions against concussive forces
  • Should be 25% of daily total calories (mainly from healthy fat) EFA

Commonly used classification:
    Essential Fatty Acid (EFA), (tuna, salmon, mackerel, flaxseed, sunflower)

HDL(Avocado, Almonds, Soy,EFA’s, Olive Oil) – unsaturated = Positive Fats 

LDL (Red meat, butter, pastries) increase the chance of blockage of arteries – saturated = Negatives Fats 

Hydrogenated & Triglyceride  increases LDL levels which is alarmingly negative

All fat helps to (store energy in adipose tissue, insulate and protect internal organs, hormone regulation, carry fat soluble vitamins EFA, provide taste and induce the feeling of satiety and smooth muscle contraction) 

  • Triglycerides = Common from dietary fats and oils
  • Saturated Fat = Increase cholesterol found in meat and dairy products
  • Low density Lipoprotein (LDL) = Major carrier of cholesterol and lipids in blood
  • High density Lipoprotein (HDL) = Carry lipids away from storage and to liver for metabolism (removal of cholesterol)

Common food containing Fat :

FoodTotal Calories
Butter (1 tbsp.)99
Coconut (Raw  – 1 cup)303
Avocado (1 whole)371
Olive Oil (1 tbsp.)126
Feta Cheese74
Doughnut Plain (Negative ) 216
Chicken Breast (fried) 354
Whole Milk148


Last but not least the most essential “SKY JUICE”=H20 = WATER 

Most essential nutrient (60% – 70% of body weight consist of water)

#  Reduces body temperature by sweating and by transporting nutrients to the internal organs, muscles and waste products out of the system 

#  Saliva and gastro intestinal  juice secretion

#  Solvent of chemical reactions and lubricant for your cells.

Total water consumption 2.7 L (91 oz.) Men 3.7 L (125 oz.) on a avarage based on individual requirement

 2 hours prior to exercises 400 ml. 600 ml (14 – 22 oz.)During exercise 150 – 350 ml. (6-12 oz.) every 15 – 20 minutes,  Post exercises 450 – 675 ml. (16-24 oz.) for each pound of weight lost

DEHYDRATION: This is serious  for athletic and non- athletic population,  be a aware of the below :

1% fluid loss will decrease  fitness, blood volume, electrolytes, and the ability to contract muscles

Check urine color in the morning it should be lemonade color if darker this is sing you are dehydrated

#  Check body weight  as a habit every morning, pre and post workout any loss is a fluid loss  caused by (external weather temperature, humidity, pre-hydration levels, improper clothing, insufficient acclimatization)

  Stage 1 – (thirst, flushed skin, muscle cramp)

  Stage2 – (dizziness, vomiting, nausea, chills, shortness of breath)

 Stage 3 – Heat stroke (fatal)

REHYDRATION: Simple precautions:

#  Sports drink contains < 8% carbohydrates and around 6% sodium

#  Homemade drink – 200 – 250 ml. (O.J.), 800 ml. water, 1 g salt)

 Finally remember  to: ” EAT & DRINK  ACCORDING TO YOUR, HEATALTH, ACTIVITY LEVEL & GOALS”  By eating more food and consuming more calories, than you burn, will result in you gaining fat and making you unhealthy.  Also, eating less food and consuming less calories than your body requires for your level of physical activity, will cause you to lose your lean muscle and make you unhealthy. 

If you are a athlete consider your sports, weight class, training and recovery goals based on the periodized cycle, injury status and many others factors then consider the {Quantity,Quality ,Density,Timing} with biological value,

In a future blog we would discuss this in details for Tennis and Combat Sports regarding  how to eat strategically.

Disclaimer : As with any exercise or nutrition programme consult your Doctor prior to starting any programme, also note that nutritional & exercise  research and data eveloves/changes on a regular basis with the advancement of science, as readers you should do more research prior to considering any advice. This blog is for information purpose only . 

Check my article on “MIRACLE SUPPLEMENT”

I look forward to hearing from you if,  I missed any points, do comment, I always appreciate all feedback  as intention is daily improvement.


Coach Ran AKA( Ranil Harshana)
High Performance Coach, Author , Presenter
Coach for Olympians/Paralympians/Asian &SEA Games / Pro -Tennis,Combat & Badminton athletes 


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